Moto Guzzi motorcycles
They brought the First World War: Giorgio Parodi was a military pilot, and Carlo Guzzi - his mechanic. When peace came, they decided to start producing motorcycles. Guzzi took over the design of the machine, and Parodi - the organization of production (venture funded by his father, the owner of the steamship lines). The experimental samples were carrying the brand GP (ie Guzzi-Parodi), but March 21, 1921 the newly formed company was registered under the name of "Societa Anonima Moto Guzzi".
Designed by Carlo Guzzi motorcycle completely departed from the established canons in those years - at least with regard to the power unit. The cylinder is horizontal, and reducing base Guzzi made short stroke engine (88x82 mm, 499 cm3). Conspicuous huge outdoor flywheel. Carlo applied prevalent in those years a gas distribution system with one above the other valves in the cylinder head but did not put an inlet valve (a legacy of the days when this node is activated by the vacuum), and the outlet. Gearwheel transfer led to a hard-docked three-stage gearbox. The power unit was enclosed in a tubular frame duplex with a stiff rear suspension, front fork was a parallelogram. The car weighed 130 kg and the engine capacity of 8.5 hp clocked it up to a speed of 85 km / h. Motorcycles made on a design scheme, the company Moto Guzzi released until 1976!
At the urging of Parodi was elected in the most efficient way to advertise those years - competing. Already in 1921, Gino Finzi won the prestigious race "Targa Florio". By 1923, has prepared a special racing model «Corsa 2V» with OHV 18-horsepower engine. And next season on the road out «C4V» with engine with four-valve heads and cylinder overhead camshaft, he developed the power of 25 hp Guido Mentasti on this bike won the "Grand Prix of Europe". Soon after his debut, and 250-cc version of the machine, the first in a race, then in road design.
The outstanding novelty Carlo Guzzi introduced in 1928 - the model «GT» with sprung rear wheel. The pendulum suspension, equipped with friction dampers, was a triangle (side view) design, in tension springs were under the engine. Motor power (still with stacked valves) was adjusted to 12 hp, the same engine, and stood on the model of "Sport 14" with unsprung rear wheel. In 1929, the company has mastered the production three-wheeled motorcycle truck. This type of transport used considerable popularity, so their production continued until 1980.
The drop in demand during the crisis 30 years caused a revival of the design of Moto Guzzi. In 1932, in addition to the 250-cc and 500-cc road machines, the company released the "P175" with a 174 - cc engine capacity of 7 hp In 1933 she made her debut a new series of 500-cc machines with overhead valve engines, four-speed gearbox with foot switch and sprung rear wheels - 19-strong «GTV» and a 23-strong «GTW». But the flagship of the company was to be introduced in 1933 model «Three-cylinder » horizontal three-cylinder OHV 495 cc engine with 25 hp Alas, complex and expensive machine is not aroused the enthusiasm of buyers and Moto Guzzi managed to make only 12 copies.
Yet it is to increase the number of cylinders Carlo Guzzi saw the path to success, at least on the race track. Back in 1930, he tried out the bike with a horizontal 492-cc OHV four-cylinder engine equipped with a compressor. Although this unit has given as much as 45 horsepower, it proved to be too unreliable to be much more successful was developed in 1933 with the construction of a two-cylinder V-twin 495-cubic-Vym motor. For better refinement Guzzi chose camber 120 °, placing the front cylinder horizontally. Overhead camshafts (one per head) had a drive shaft and a pair of bevel gears. The engine produces maximum power of 40 HP, by 1935 it was adjusted to 45 hp At the same engine found in the new chassis with a sprung rear wheel. On this bike Stanley Woods won the race "Tourist Trophy" in 1935, and a one-cylinder 250-cubic version - and the race in the 250 cm3.
During the Second World War, the company produced an army motorcycle "Alche» (alce - elk), equipped with a 499 cc engine (with stacked valves) a power of 13.2 HP and its version with a drive carriage "Trialce". Total Army has received more than 8,000 of these machines. Fortunately, located away from major cities plant is not affected by the bombing and was able to quickly set up production of motorcycles for civilian use. Along with the resumption of pre-war production models - the 250-cubic «Airone» (heron) and 500 bottoms «GTV» - the company introduced in 1946, the lightweight motorcycle «Guzzino». Designed by a young engineer Antonio Mucicci, this machine did not have anything to do with the traditional pattern - single-cylinder two-stroke engine (65 cm3, 2 hp) with a rotary slide valve inlet, a three-stage gearbox, ridged tubular frame, floating axle with a spring element in pendulum base, front parallelogram fork. Unsurprisingly, it was this easy to manufacture machine became the sales leader in post-war Italy.
The company then conducted a reconstruction of the pre-war models. In 1948, «Airone» got a telescopic front fork. Along with the standard model with an engine capacity of 9.5 hp started production version of «Airone Sport» power 13.5 hp and the maximum velocity 118 km / h In place of the «GTV» in 1949, came the model «Astore» (hawk) with 499 cc engine capacity of 19.5 HP, "telescope" front and rear suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers. Released next year sports model «Falcone» (Falcon, 499 cm3, 23 hp, 135 km / h), strangely enough, has returned to the friction dampers. Moreover, in 1953 the motor from «Astore» installed in the chassis «Falcone» - this version is called «Falcone Turismo». At the same time, the company expanded its range of light patterns designed Mucicci. The growing boom roller firm said in a 1950 model «Galetto» (cockerel), a strange symbiosis between a motorcycle and scooter. Designed in the tradition of Moto Guzzi engine - a horizontal single-cylinder overhead valve unit (160 hp 6.4 cm3), locked with a three-stage gearbox, located in the tunnel between the rider's legs. The car had 17-inch wheels, and another wheel - spare - was located in front of the front shield facing. In 1952, a machine put four-speed transmission and 175-cc engine capacity of 7 HP in 1954 brought an engine capacity of up to 192 cm3, and capacity - up to 7.5 hp Ironically, hybrid caught: he will be released until 1966 and during that time have made more than 70 thousand.
Another design Mucicci debuted in 1953 - an easy bike «Zigolo» horizontal two-stroke 98 cc engine (4 hp in the standard version and 6.8 hp in the sport), three-stage transmission, telescopic front fork, rear suspension with friction dampers and nose over the space between the engine and the fuel tank. In 1959, «Zigolo» received 110-cc engine capacity of 4.8 hp chrome-plated cylinder bore and hydraulic shock absorbers rear suspension. And to replace the "Guzzini" in 1954 came an upgraded model of «Cardellino» (finch), in 1956, received a telescopic front fork instead of a parallelogram. In 1957, its engine displacement increased to 73 cm3, and power - up to 2.6 hp After another rejuvenation in 1962, these options were up to 83 cm 3 and 2.9 hp.
Racing department after the war led engineer Giulio Carcano. For the season 1949 he upgraded the old-style machines, single-cylinder (249 cm3, 28 cm3 and 489 hp, 34 hp) and a two-cylinder 494-cubic (45 HP). They got a low stretched silhouette (Carcano believed beneficial effect on the controllability of a low center of gravity) of short-and front forks. Bruno Ruffo became world champion in the 250 cm3. The following year, riders on the Moto Guzzi in this category took place from second to fifth, but lost the title. Carcano responded to the challenge of creating an engine with two overhead camshafts and four-valve heads cylinders, but the design was not successful, and he was engaged in the improvement of the old motor. It has brought success: Ruffo again became the world champion in 1951, and Enrico Lorenzetti - in 1952.
The following season, the company Moto Guzzi has decided to shift their focus to more cubic capacity engines. If the 350-cubes race car was a direct development of the 250-cubic (up to 326 cm3 of the bore design with overhead camshaft), then racing in the senior class was designed completely new car with a longitudinally positioned in-line engine (492 cm3 54 hp) with two overhead camshafts with gear-driven, liquid-cooled, fuel injection system. The power unit was also the main landing gear bearing element: a lightweight tubular subframes attached to it front fork and rear of short-floating axle. Alas, in this racing car proved to be not at its best. But in the 350 cm3 class Englishman Fergus Anderson on a one-cylinder machine won the world title, Lorenzetti took second place. For the season 1954 Carcano has prepared a new single-cylinder car for racing in classes 350 and 500 cm3 with two overhead camshafts, a tubular space frame, which enabled a very low center of gravity to put on, and covering the entire front of the motorcycle fairing, tailored to the wind tunnel. Anderson once again became the world champion in the class of 350 cm3, and the Aussie Ken Kavanagh finished third in the class of 500 cm3. Another Englishman Bill Lomas brought Moto Guzzi championships in class 350 cm3 in 1955 and 1956.
In the summer of 1955 came to the track, perhaps the most difficult bike race of all time - the new "500" Moto Guzzi with the eight-cylinder V-engine. Two cylinder positioned at an angle of 90 °, in each head housed two overhead camshafts. Fueled this unit eight carburetors, ignition coils provide eight and four chopper. Liquid-cooled engine was interlocked with the four-speed gearbox (originally designed the six-Carcano, but it was overkill) and was located in a duplex frame cross. Version 1956 has developed 67 hp at 12,500 rev / min for the next season brought power to 75 hp motorcycle proved to be extremely greyhound, but unreliable: he could not win a single race, a member of the drivers' championship. But the single-cylinder engine in 1957, brought to the treasury team Moto Guzzi another championship in the class 350 cm3. At the end of the same year, Moto Guzzi has entered into a secret agreement with Italian companies "Mondial" and «Gilera»: the three giants, largely determined the face of motorcycle racing in the 50s, at the same time went from racing. This decision was not a whim: the appearance on the market of vehicles such as the "Fiat 600", hit hard by the manufacturers of motorcycles. Saving on motor sports, they were able to invest in the creation of new traffic patterns. In April 1956, the company Moto Guzzi introduced a completely new bike «Lodola» (bird) - tilted forward at a 45 degree angle single-cylinder four-stroke engine (174 cm3, 9 hp) with an overhead camshaft, chain driven, duplex frame, telescopic front fork and rear floating axle with hydraulic shock absorbers. In 1959, the company introduced a version of this bike with the 235-cubic-Vym engine producing 11 hp Quite popular was shown in the same year bike «Stornello» (starling) - 123 cc 7-hp engine with locking rod drive top flaps and slightly tilted forward cylinder, lightweight duplex frame, "telescope" front and rear floating axle. In 1967, this car thoroughly modernized: power 123-cc engine was raised to 10 hp, 153-cc appeared variant «Stornello 160" power of 12.7 hp In 1971, the capacity of the two options was raised to 13 and 16 hp respectively, came to replace the four-five-speed transmission.
Another lightweight motorcycle design Mucicci appeared in 1963 - the model «Dingo», with a two-stroke 49 cc engine capacity of 1.5 hp, three-stage gearbox and pressed the cap frame. This Moto Guzzi motorcycle manufactured before 1979 in a variety of options. In 1966 he started a moped «Trotter» with a 41-cc engine capacity of 1.23 hp and a two-stage gearbox. But not in the light of these machines was the future of Moto Guzzi. His three-wheeled ATV to have developed in the late 50's by order of the War Ministry. For this machine Carcano developed a 704 cc two-cylinder V-engine with locking rod drive top flaps of the centrally located camshaft. Then came the idea to use this engine, building heavy bike for the Italian police - the Carabinieri. Finally, in autumn 1965 the public saw a machine called «V7 Bicilindrica»: 704-cc engine producing 50 horsepower, coupled to a four-speed gearbox, longitudinally mounted (on the location of the crankshaft) to the tubular frame duplex. The drive to the rear wheel - drive shaft. On an assurance company, this 243-pound unit was able to accelerate to 170 km / h Alas, this is not immediately able to verify. In 1966, the company was on the verge of bankruptcy, and in fact came under state control. Only in 1967 has begun mass production of two-cylinder cars - and it turned out that they had already become obsolete. For their update took engineer Lino Tonti. First, in 1969, he introduced a modernized «V7 Special»; increasing engine displacement to 748 cm3, and its capacity to 60 HP, he also reduced the weight of the car to 228 kg. In 1971, this bike has received the "American" styling (high wheel, imposing saddle) and the name of «V750 Californian». But the main novelty of the year was the model «V7 Sport», equipped with uprated to 70 hp engine and five-speed gearbox. But the most important thing is that this machine had not only excellent dynamics (maximum speed 205 km / h, "a hundred on the spot" for 5 seconds), but the rapid appearance in style "cafe-racer".
As it turned out, not all units of the Carabinieri are ready to purchase complex and expensive two-cylinder bike Moto Guzzi. Mainly for the needs of their company in 1969, conducted a full update of its «Falcone». «Nuove Falcone» was boosted to 25.4 hp verhneklalanny engine (keeping the same dimensions 88x82 mm, and the first-born in 1921), five-speed gearbox, rear pendulum suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers and modernized appearance. However, the nuances of the fashion police were of little interest, and the civilian public reacted to the new incarnation of the legend at low pressure.
In the early 70's the owner of the company became an industrialist Alejandro de Tomaso, which already belonged to another famous Italian motorcycle company - «Benelli». The first fruit of this integration was the appearance in 1973-74 a whole range of motorcycles Benelli - to 50-cubic single-cylinder two-stroke models to 350-cubic four-cylinder four-stroke - under the brand Moto Guzzi. However, there were a means for the development of motorcycles with V-shaped "two", which have already become a symbol of the company. In 1972, to replace the 750-cc «Special» and «Californian» cars come with upgraded power unit - 844 cm3, 64.5 hp, five-speed manual transmission. Since 1973, on heavy motorcycles came with hydraulic disc brakes.
Caused a small sensation in autumn 1975 Tourism machine «V1000 Convert» with an automatic transmission vehicle type, 949-cc engine producing 71 hp, large windshield and roof racks wardrobe trunks. But a year later Moto Guzzi introduced a far more convincing trump card - the road-racing bike «V850 Le Mans» with a 844-cc engine with 81 hp, alloy wheels and gorgeous looks, designed by renowned studio «Ital Design». At the same time on a motorcycle company started the implementation of the integrated brake system (the force from the brake pedal is transmitted on one of the front discs), typical for modern Moto Guzzi.
Bet on the sale of motorcycles middle class «Benelli» under the brand Moto Guzzi did not pay off, and De Tomaso decided to develop this class of machines in the tradition of the company - with a two-cylinder V-engine and driveline to the rear wheel. These models - «V35» (346 cm3, 33.5 hp) and «V50» (490 cm3, 45 hp) - are brought to the public in 1976. Demand for new products was so high that they had to take the former assembly plant «Innocenti» in Milan. In addition to the classic versions, in 1981, began producing sports cars «V35 Imola» and «V50 Monza», and also performed at the American-style «V35 Custom» and «V50 Chopper». At the same time, and "large" model - sports "Le Mans», tourist «SP», Americanized "California" - moved to 949-cc engine. The gap between "small" and "large" models was completed in 1982 with the advent of «V65» (643 cm3, 52 hp), and a year later there was a more powerful «V75» (744 cm3, 65 hp).
Somewhat unexpected was the debut in 1983 Moto Guzzi motorcycles in off-road style: «V35TT» (346 cm3, 31 hp) and «V65TT» (649 cm3, 48 hp). Of course, these imposing in size and weight of the machine is difficult to consider these conquerors of off-road, although the company has actively exhibited special versions for the prestigious rally-raids. Over time, they become powerful, "enduro Journey" the culmination of this process was the model 1991 «Quota» (948 cm3, 70 hp) - At the time of his debut, the most powerful and heavy (210 kg) "off-road" motorcycle world.
Moto Guzzi engines have been used successfully in racing series such as «Buttle of Twins». In the late 80's, the company invited one of the best specialist in the creation of this category of motorcycle racing, American «Dr. John »Wittner, to create a new sports bike. He created the prototype was presented in autumn 1989, and two years later was shown and the production version of the «Daytona 1000 ie». V-shaped 992-cc engine was four-valve heads cylinders, high-lying camshafts and fuel injection system, due to this maximum power was able to raise up to 95 hp at 8000 rev / min. Wittner re-designed and chassis - the powerful sill, the special design of the rear suspension that minimizes reaction propeller drive.
Pretty expensive to manufacture engine «Daytona» has inspired the 1993 model "1100 Sport» with carburetors, two- heads and central camshaft. By increasing the displacement to 1064 cm3 managed to retain power parameters at 90 hp In 1996, this engine is installed the fuel injection system, and a year later - derated to 74 hp version of the engine has received and "California". The company currently produces three model range: made in the American style «Nevada 750" (744 cm3, 48 hp) and a family of "California" as well as road racing series «VII Sport» in several versions.
In summer 2000, Moto Guzzi has acquired Italian company «Aprilia», and in 2004, together with the Aprilia became part of the corporation Piaggio. Since the mid 60's of the last century was the hallmark of two-cylinder V-engine with a crankshaft disposed longitudinally and laterally protruding cylinders. The motor design is conservative: they kept air-cooled engines and parts are still standing two-valve cylinder head with locking rod operated valves. Four-valve heads with overhead camshafts went into a series since 2008.